Human Rights
Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Children
Specific Adverse Impact on Women and Children
Human Rights and Women
Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Children


Specific Adverse Impact on Women and Children

Increase in Violence Against Women and Children

During conflict women and girls are vulnerable to all forms of violence, particularly sexual violence and exploitation, including torture, rape, mass rape, and trafficking. Similarly, the health consequences for women and girls during the conflict are also enormous. According to INSEC, from 13 February 1996 to 31 October 2005 total of 911 women have been killed by both sides. According to CWIN-NRCIC, in the course of 11 years of armed conflict, it has been reported that: 445 (309 boys and 136 girls) have already died, 522 (318 boys and 150 girls and 54 are unknown) have been injured, 30,587 children have been abducted (captured and released in many cases) and around 254 children have been arrested by state security force.

From the period of Jan - April 2006, it has been recorded that: 23 children (13 boys and 10 girls) have been killed, 47 children (35 boys and 13 girls) have been injured. Similarly, 514 children have been abducted (captured and released in many cases) by the rebel group and state security forces have arrested 16 (3 boys and 2 girls and 13 unidentified) children. 11 children (7 boys and 4 unidentified) involved in Maoist activities had surrendered.

Increase in the Number of Single Women

During the twelve year long conflict many citizens of Nepal had lost their lives . The data available from INSEC shows that from 13 February 1996 to 31 October a total of 8273 persons had been killed by the state (5852 males, 748 females and 1673 sex not identified). On the other hand a total of 4577 persons were killed by the non-state actors (4218 males, 163 females and 196 gender not identified). Hence total of 12,850 people have been killed from both the rebel and the security side. This has consequently resulted in an increase in the number of single women, though there is no exact data reflecting this.

Increase in the Number of Orphans

One of the major impacts of the conflict is the increase in the number of orphans. Armed conflict has deprived young children from their parent's love. They are left without any support. The government also does not have sufficient programs to support these children. There is also lack of specific data reflecting the increase in orphans and their situation.

Work Load on Women

In the situation of armed conflict, many men fled their hometown out of fear of being kidnapped or killed by the armed forces. In these circumstances, women were left behind with full responsibility for the household work. They had to take care of their children as well as the entire household. As a result, it increased the workload of already burdened women.

Children Deprived of the Right to Education

The education sector was affected the most due to the conflict in Nepal. The negative effects range from frequent Nepal bandhs (strikes), to infliction of physical damage to institutions and attacks on teachers and other personnel involved in professional institutions. Many school buildings have been burnt or destroyed. Schools became a sort of battle field between the security forces and the Maoists. Due to the frequent bandhs called by the Maoists, regular classes were affected tremendously. Schools were forced to close frequently and sometimes examinations also had to be postponed.

The constant attack on the education system from both sides stopped many children from going to schools. Many either dropped school or hesitated to join one, especially if the school was not nearby. In many cases they were compelled to migrate to the district center for education - which however was not a possible option for many students. Many girls were forced into early marriage so as to escape forced recruitment thus hampering their educational prospects.

Psychological Impact on Women & Children

Children have been most vulnerable to the psychological effect of violence.Many have grown up in a culture of revenge and violence. Children are seen suffering from depressive reactions; aggressive behaviour, social withdrawal and fear . The psychological impact on women is also enormous as they had to struggle hard in keeping the family intact with limited resources and heavy workload. Due to the increased responsibility and work burden women. are found to be suffering from frustration, depression, anxiety, conversion disorder, psychosomatic pain, shock and fear. They were harassed by the demand of both warring sides for shelter and food and had to face sexual slavery, sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of violence which affected their physical as well as their mental wellbeing.

Girls Deprived of Education

As a result of the conflict in Nepal, children were forced to leave school. Some of them mainly boys got a chance to go to the district center and continue their studies. However the victims of this situation were mostly girls as parents were not in favour of sending their daughters to the district centerfor education. So they were forced to leave their studies and help in the household chores. As a result, their right to education was violated.

Sexual Exploitation of Women

Sexual exploitation of women is reported to have taken place rampantly in conflict affected areas. . Both sides exhorted to sexual exploitation of women and girls as a means of revenge. Women and girls were attacked in their homes, in the fields or as they moved around for their other daily activities. There were increasing number of reported incidences of sexual exploitation and sexual violence in conflict affected areas.

Source: UNIFEM, UNITED NATIONS Development Fund for Women, "A Rapid Scan-organisations Working on Women and Peace in Nepal", 2006
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United Nations Development Fund for Woman
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Source: UNIFEM
A Rapid Scan
organisations Working on Women and Peace
in Nepal
Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Children
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Source: UNICEF
Basic Education
UNICEF report: Situation Analysis on the Children and Women in Nepal 2006
1.4 MB PDF-File
more information
Women in Nepal: Social Status
UNICEF report: Situation Analysis on the Children and Women in Nepal 2006
INSEC Violence against Women during Armed Conflict